Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.

  1. Fossils

    Explainer: How a fossil forms

    Minerals can replace any bone, shell or once-living tissue and also fill in the spaces between these hard parts, birthing a fossil.

  2. Earth

    The quake that shook up geology

    North America’s biggest earthquake struck 50 years ago. Here’s what science has learned about Earth since the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake.

  3. Earth

    Big rocks’ balancing acts

    Scientists study how balanced boulders resist falling over — and what that may say about earthquakes.

  4. Earth

    Digging into a tsunami disaster

    A powerful earthquake under the Indian Ocean changed Earth's surface and spin.

  5. Earth

    Deep drilling at sea

    Drilling holes deep into the seafloor unveils the ocean's past and hints at Earth's future.

  6. Humans

    A human migration fueled by dung?

    When people crossed from Asia to the Americas thousands of years ago, burning dung may have kept them warm.