HS-ESS2-1

Develop a model to illustrate how Earth's internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.

  1. Earth

    Scientists Say: Magma and lava

    The word magma refers to molten rock deep inside Earth. That rock is called lava when it reaches Earth’s surface.

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  2. Earth

    Rock rising from below the Atlantic may drive continents apart

    Molten rock rising from the deep mantle at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge may drive plate tectonics there more than had been expected.

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  3. Earth

    Scientists Say: Earthquake

    An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes violent shaking of the ground.

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  4. Earth

    Explainer: Earth — layer by layer

    Explore the sizzling heat, unimaginable pressures — and some surprise diamonds — that sit beneath our feet. This is the side of Earth that you can’t see.

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  5. Earth

    Explainer: Understanding geologic time

    Geologic time is unimaginably long. Geologists puzzle it out using a calendar called the Geologic Time Scale.

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    Earth

    How long will Kilauea’s new eruption last?

    A government volcano expert answers burning questions about the ongoing Kilauea eruption.

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  7. Earth

    Explainer: What makes dirt different from soil

    Although most people use the terms dirt and soil interchangeably, scientists argue that they shouldn’t. Soil has provenance — meaning history. Dirt doesn’t.

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  8. Earth

    Ancient Arctic ‘gas’ melt triggered enormous seafloor explosions

    Methane explosions 12,000 years ago left huge craters in bedrock on the Arctic seafloor. Scientists worry more could be on the way today as Earth’s ice sheets melt.

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  9. Oceans

    Massive ice shelf is poised to break off of Antarctica

    A fast-growing crack in Antarctica’s Larsen C ice shelf could soon release a truly huge hunk of ice into the ocean.

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  10. Earth

    ‘Weather bomb’ storms send tremors through Earth

    Scientists have detected tiny tremors in the Earth coming from an extreme storm. One day, those tiny tremors could help reveal Earth’s innermost secrets.

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  11. Oceans

    Seafloor hosts surprising number of deep-sea vents

    A new sensor detects changes in seawater chemistry and finds far more ecosystem-supporting seafloor vents than scientists had believed were out there.

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  12. Earth

    Dust creates deserts in the sky

    Vast rivers of dust flow through the sky. This invisible force shapes our world in profound ways. And scientists are finally homing in on a major source.

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