Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

  1. Materials Science

    ‘Smart’ windows could save energy

    Tiny chemical droplets in a liquid sandwiched between panes of glass turn cloudy when they warm up. This will block some sunlight and potentially save on air conditioning bills.

  2. Materials Science

    Scientists Say: Colloid

    When water hovers in the air as fog and when bits of fat disperse in water as milk, they form a type of substance called a colloid.

  3. Tech

    Rewritable paper: Prints with light, not ink

    Rewritable paper could save money, preserve forests and cut down on waste — and all without using any ink.

  4. Physics

    Smooshed diamonds: A window into exoplanets?

    Scientists have compressed diamonds more than ever before. Their carbon may give clues to what conditions might be like deep within planets way beyond our solar system.

  5. Physics

    Very-sub-zero water

    Using lasers, scientists measured the temperature of water droplets that remained liquid even when super-cold.

  6. Physics

    World’s coolest ‘clock’ is also crazy-accurate

    This is the time to beat — the world’s most accurate atomic clock ever. At its heart is a ‘fountain’ of cesium atoms chilled nearly to absolute zero!

  7. Physics

    Temperature ‘lock’ for new hard drives?

    A novel material can alter how easy it is to change data stored on it, based on temperature. One immediate application: more secure hard drives for computing.

  8. Physics

    Closing in on fusion energy

    Scientists blasted a tiny capsule of hydrogen with laser beams, setting off a reaction that released more energy than in earlier experiments. Still, scientists remain a long way from creating a reaction that releases more energy than it needs to get started.

  9. Physics

    Neutrinos not so fast

    Scientists say the particles may not outrace light after all.

  10. Physics

    Breaking the universal speed limit

    Particles appear to race faster than the speed of light.

  11. Planets

    Possible new saltwater stains on Mars

    Dark streaks that grow in spring, fade in winter may point to saltwater on the Red Planet.

  12. Physics

    Explainer: How a synchrotron works

    Giant magnets direct superfast light into beams up to 30 million times as bright as those produced by a laser pointer.